如何处理毛毛虫蛰伤

部分 1

部分 1 的 3:清理被蛰伤的皮肤

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在不与毛毛虫直接接触的前提下将它们从皮肤上拿开。如果毛毛虫还趴在你的皮肤上,用钳子、镊子,或者戴上厚实的手套把虫子摘下来扔掉。如果你不想再被蛰伤,就绝对不要让裸露的皮肤接触到毛毛虫。
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可靠来源

U.S. National Capital Poison Center

前往来源

毛毛虫身上刺状的细毛就是攻击你的“武器”,所以千万不要用手指碰到了。WH.performance.mark(‘step1_rendered’);

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用胶带粘掉皮肤上的细毛。你可以用3M胶带、布基胶带,或其它类似的胶带。剪下一截胶带,贴在被蛰的部位,然后快速地撕下来。扎在皮肤上的有毒细毛会被胶带粘住。这一步对于减轻症状,防止皮肤进一步被蛰伤非常有必要。[2]
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研究来源

你也可以用创可贴有黏性的地方粘掉毛毛虫的细毛。

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清洗被蛰伤的部位。用肥皂和温水把受伤的皮肤及其周围彻底洗净。最后别忘了把双手洗干净,因为你的手可能会接触到毛毛虫身上的毒素或带刺的细毛。[3]
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研究来源

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部分 2

部分 2 的 3:通过治疗消除症状

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在皮肤上涂抹小苏打和水调成的糊。把15克小苏打和15到30克温水混合成糊。把大量小苏打糊涂抹在受伤的皮肤上。过几分钟,瘙痒就会减轻,其它不适感也会减弱。你可以每隔几小时重新涂抹一次小苏打糊。[4]
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可靠来源

U.S. National Capital Poison Center

前往来源

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涂抹氢化可的松软膏。如果小苏打糊不能减轻症状,用水把皮肤冲洗干净,多涂点氢化可的松软膏。涂好后让软膏静置一会儿。一个小时左右刺痛感可能才会有所减轻。按照软膏盒子上的说明再次用药。[5]
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可靠来源

U.S. National Capital Poison Center

前往来源

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使用抗组胺软膏。如果氢化可的松软膏效果不佳,那就把伤口彻底洗净,再抹上厚厚一层抗组胺软膏。休息半个小时,看刺痛感是否减弱。大多数情况下,抗组胺软膏已被证实并不能缓解毛虫蛰咬产生的不适感,不过也有例外。[6]
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可靠来源

U.S. National Capital Poison Center

前往来源

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用冰敷缓解症状。在涂抹了小苏打糊或药膏以后,你可以将冰袋敷在被蛰伤的皮肤上。把一袋子冰块或者冷冻蔬菜贴在皮肤上,每次敷10到20分钟。每过1或2小时重复一次。[7]
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研究来源

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部分 3

部分 3 的 3:寻求医疗救助

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1
观察症状是否恶化。被毛毛虫蜇伤后,你可能出现一系列症状。症状有轻有重,具体严重程度由毛虫的种类和你的过敏情况决定。常见的症状包括: [8]
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研究来源

瘙痒、疼痛,出现接触性皮炎、水泡、红肿的伤痕,或红色小肿块、
急性结膜炎(如果毛刺扎进眼睛)
皮疹和荨麻疹
呼吸困难
恶心和呕吐
如果你不幸被一种叫作Lonomia的南美毛虫蛰伤,甚至可能出现内出血和肾衰竭的症状。

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如果症状加重,要马上去看医生。如果你的皮肤上出现成块的红肿,长出水泡,或者皮疹面积扩大,立即去医院就诊。及时就医关系到你的性命,因为有些人被毛虫蛰伤后会出现致命的过敏反应。[9]
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可靠来源

U.S. National Capital Poison Center

前往来源

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拨打国家中毒中心求助电话,咨询更多信息。如果你不清楚如何处理毛虫蛰伤,可拨打国家中毒中心全天候的求助电话 010-63131122,专家会在电话那头给出建议。[10]
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可靠来源

U.S. National Capital Poison Center

前往来源

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注射破伤风加强针。如果过去的5到10年间你没有注射过破伤风加强疫苗,在被毛虫蛰伤的72小时内,你必须去打一针破伤风。因为伤口可能暴露在细菌环境中,继而受到感染。[11]
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研究来源

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