如何计算各种图形的面积

方法 1

方法 1 的 7:正方形、长方形和平行四边形

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1
测量宽和高。首先要找出该图形的宽和高(也就是说,要找出相邻两边的长度)。
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研究来源

在平行四边形中,就是要找出底和垂直高度,这跟宽和高是一个意思。
现实生活中需要自己进行测量;如果是作业,老师应该会将这些测量值与图形一起列出来。
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{“smallUrl”:”https://www.wikihow.com/images_en/thumb/0/0b/Find-the-Area-of-a-Shape-Step-2-Version-4.jpg/v4-460px-Find-the-Area-of-a-Shape-Step-2-Version-4.jpg”,”bigUrl”:”https://www.wikihow.com/images/thumb/0/0b/Find-the-Area-of-a-Shape-Step-2-Version-4.jpg/v4-728px-Find-the-Area-of-a-Shape-Step-2-Version-4.jpg”,”smallWidth”:460,”smallHeight”:345,”bigWidth”:728,”bigHeight”:546,”licensing”:”

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2
将边长相乘。将宽和高相乘。假设某个长方形的高为16厘米,宽为42厘米,即为16 x 42。[2]
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研究来源

如果要计算正方形的面积,可以使用计算器求出边长的平方,这样能节省点时间。因此,如果边长是4米,按下计算器上的4和平方键就能得出答案。按平方键能自动将数字与其本身相乘。

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3
得出答案。相乘之后得出的答案就是该图形的面积,写做“平方单位”。因此长方形的面积应该是674平方厘米。
有时候也会被称为是厘米平方,或者在厘米的右上方写个小2代替“平方”两个字。

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方法 2

方法 2 的 7:梯形

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“}
1
先测量。需要测量梯形的上底、下底和垂直高度。上底与下底是两条平行的边,而高则垂直于其中一条边。[3]
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研究来源

现实生活中需要自己进行测量;如果是作业,老师应该会将这些测量值与图形一起列出来。

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2
将上底和下底的边长相加。假设上底为5cm,下底为7cm。相加后得12。

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3
将所得结果除以2。计算后得出6。

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“}
4
将结果乘以高。假设这个梯形的高为6cm。计算后得出36。[4]
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研究来源

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5
得出结果。乘以高之后的结果就是梯形的面积。因此对于5x6x7的梯形,面积为36平方厘米。

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方法 3

方法 3 的 7:圆形

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“}
1
找出半径。要求出圆的面积,需要知道半径长度。半径是圆心到圆周的距离。也可以取圆的直径,或者说是圆的宽度,然后除以2就得出半径。[5]
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研究来源

现实生活中需要自己进行测量;如果是作业,老师应该会将这些测量值与图形一起列出来。

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2
将半径平方。用半径乘以半径。假设半径的长度为8米,计算后得出64。

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3
乘以π。π是一个很常用的数字,在很多计算中都会用到。如果有计算器,可以用π这个功能得出非常精确的结果;如果没有,可以四舍五入(忽略一些数字),乘以3.14159就行了。计算得出201.06176。[6]
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研究来源

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{“smallUrl”:”https://www.wikihow.com/images_en/thumb/b/b8/Find-the-Area-of-a-Shape-Step-12-Version-3.jpg/v4-460px-Find-the-Area-of-a-Shape-Step-12-Version-3.jpg”,”bigUrl”:”https://www.wikihow.com/images/thumb/b/b8/Find-the-Area-of-a-Shape-Step-12-Version-3.jpg/v4-728px-Find-the-Area-of-a-Shape-Step-12-Version-3.jpg”,”smallWidth”:460,”smallHeight”:345,”bigWidth”:728,”bigHeight”:546,”licensing”:”

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4
得出结果。本例中的计算结果201.06176就是圆形的面积。因此结果是201.06176平方米。

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方法 4

方法 4 的 7:扇形

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1
先测量。扇形是圆形的一部分,看起来有点像扇子。需要知道初始圆形的半径,也就是“扇子”的一边,以及圆心角的角度。假设半径为14cm,圆心角为60度。[7]
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研究来源

现实生活中需要自己进行测量;如果是作业,老师应该会将这些测量值与图形一起列出来。

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{“smallUrl”:”https://www.wikihow.com/images_en/thumb/3/39/Find-the-Area-of-a-Shape-Step-14-Version-3.jpg/v4-460px-Find-the-Area-of-a-Shape-Step-14-Version-3.jpg”,”bigUrl”:”https://www.wikihow.com/images/thumb/3/39/Find-the-Area-of-a-Shape-Step-14-Version-3.jpg/v4-728px-Find-the-Area-of-a-Shape-Step-14-Version-3.jpg”,”smallWidth”:460,”smallHeight”:345,”bigWidth”:728,”bigHeight”:546,”licensing”:”

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2
将半径平方。用半径乘以半径。计算后得出196(14×14)。

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“}
3
乘以π。π是一个非常常用的数字,在很多计算当中会用到。如果有计算器,可以用π这个功能得出非常精确的结果;如果没有,可以四舍五入(忽略一些数字),乘以3.14159就行了。计算后得出 615.75164。[8]
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研究来源

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4
将角度除以360。将圆心角的角度除以360(即圆形的角度)。计算后结果大约为0.166。这个数字实际上是不断重复的,但为了方便计算,我们将其四舍五入。

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5
将结果乘以之前得到的数字。将除以360后得到的结果,乘以之前乘以π得出的结果。计算后得出102.214。

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6
得出结果。得出的结果就是扇形的面积,也就是102.214平方厘米。

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方法 5

方法 5 的 7:椭圆形

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“}
1
先测量。计算椭圆形的面积,需要知道两个“半径”的长度,也可以看成是宽度和高度的一半。这是椭圆中心到长边中点的距离和椭圆中心到短边中点的距离。两条半径应该互相垂直。[9]
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研究来源

现实生活中需要自己进行测量;如果是作业,老师应该会将这些测量值与图形一起列出来。

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“}
2
将两个半径相乘。假设椭圆的宽为6cm,高为4cm;则半径为3cm及2cm。将两者相乘,得出6(3×2)。

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3
将得出的数字乘以π。π是一个非常常用的数字,在很多计算当中会用到。如果有计算器,可以用π这个功能得出非常精确的结果;如果没有,可以四舍五入(忽略一些数字),只需乘以3.14159。计算后得出18.84954。

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“}
4
得出结果。得出的结果就是椭圆形的面积。也就是说,椭圆形的面积是18.84954平方厘米。

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方法 6

方法 6 的 7:三角形

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“}
1
先测量。你需要知道三角形的底边长和高。只要能量出高度,底边可以是三角形的任意一边。假设三角形的底边为3m,高为1m。[10]
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研究来源

现实生活中需要自己进行测量;如果是作业,老师应该会将这些测量值与图形一起列出来。

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{“smallUrl”:”https://www.wikihow.com/images_en/thumb/8/80/Find-the-Area-of-a-Shape-Step-24-Version-3.jpg/v4-460px-Find-the-Area-of-a-Shape-Step-24-Version-3.jpg”,”bigUrl”:”https://www.wikihow.com/images/thumb/8/80/Find-the-Area-of-a-Shape-Step-24-Version-3.jpg/v4-728px-Find-the-Area-of-a-Shape-Step-24-Version-3.jpg”,”smallWidth”:460,”smallHeight”:345,”bigWidth”:728,”bigHeight”:546,”licensing”:”

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2
用底乘以高。计算后得出3(3×1)。[11]
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研究来源

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3
将得出的数字除以2。计算后得出1.5。

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4
得出结果。得出的结果就是三角形的面积。因此结果为1.5平方米。

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方法 7

方法 7 的 7:复杂图形

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分解图形。先将复杂图形分解为如上所述的几何图形。在家庭作业中,该如何分解应该很清楚;但现实生活中,你可能需要将其分解成很多图形,才能更精确地计算。[12]
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研究来源

可以先寻找直角和平行线。这两种是构成很多图形的基础。

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计算各个图形的面积。用上面提到的方法计算你找到的不同图形的面积。

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将各图形面积相加。将计算的各面积结果相加,得出图形的总面积。

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其他方法。根据形状不同,你也可以尝试使用其他方法。例如,可以试着在原来的图形上增添面积,使其成为一个标准的几何图形,然后从所得结果中减去增加的面积。

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