如何计算化学中的产率

方法 1

方法 1 的 2:写下化学方程式

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1
计算理论产量。理论产量是指在实际操作化学实验之前,通过化学方程式所得到的产量值。
例如:克莱尔制作了0.45克硝酸铵,而她之前的预测量是0.5克。那么她的产率是多少呢?
0.45/0.5=0.9
该数值乘以100。
得到的产率是90%。记录你的每一起始原料的质量。
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2
转换质量。将起始原料中每一元素的质量转换成反应物的摩尔数。你可以通过将其与摩尔质量相除得到。摩尔质量即化合物中每一原子的每一原子质量(周期表上每一元素下方的十进制数)的加成。

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3
定义实验比。将一种反应物的摩尔数与另一反应物的摩尔数相除,这称为实验比。

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4
定义化学计量比。将一种反应物的系数与另一反应物的系数相除。确保相除时与步骤三的顺序相同。这成为化学计量比。

5
比较化学计量比和实验比。
如果实验比较小,则上述算式中位于分子的反应物称为限量试剂。
如果化学计量比较小,则上述算式中位于分母的反应物称为限量试剂。
如果一种反应物是限量试剂,基本上意味着它会在另一种反应物之前耗尽,因此这决定了将会有多少产出。

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6
预测理论产量。将限制反应物的摩尔数乘以产量系数与限制试剂系数之比。

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方法 2

方法 2 的 2:操作实验

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1
收集实验操作中得到的纯化物并在天平上称出其质量。记录该质量。

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2
通过将产品质量除以其分子量将其转化成摩尔数。这与上述的步骤3相同。将试验中收集的摩尔数量记录为实验比。

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3
计算产率。将实际产量除以理论产量,然后乘以100。

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