如何判断宠物鱼是否怀孕

方法 1

方法 1 的 3:确定鱼的繁育方式

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1
胎生鱼。孔雀鱼,帆鳍鳉,剑尾鱼,花斑剑尾鱼是最为常见的胎生宠物鱼。这些鱼类会雌雄交配,之后雌鱼就会怀孕。一般在一到两个月后,鱼卵就会孵化为小鱼,雌鱼便会将小鱼产出体外。
在网上查询资料,搞清楚你所饲养的宠物鱼是胎生还是卵生。WH.performance.mark(‘step1_rendered’);

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2
区分雌鱼和雄鱼。一般情况下,胎生类的雄鱼颜色通常较雌性更为艳丽,且尾部下端生有细长的臀鳍。雌鱼的颜色则较为灰暗,臀鳍呈三角或扇形。如果能辨别鱼的性别,你就可以区分两只鱼是在打架(通常是同性之间),还是在交配或准备交配。
很多鱼很凭外观很难辨别性别,这时候就需要宠物店的专业人士协助了。

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3
注意宠物鱼交配的迹象。宠物鱼因为种类不同会发生交媾,抱合以及其他交配活动。对于多数宠物鱼,尤其是大部分的丝足鱼,雄鱼会精力充沛的追逐雌鱼,有时甚至会出现撕咬等情况。而盘丽鱼这样的鱼类则会雌雄协力,一起守卫自己在鱼缸中的领地。不论是哪种情况,雌雄交媾的时候,雌雄鱼会贴紧对方,上下浮动,互相缠绕,一些不易察觉的小动作也会在此期间发生。

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4
检查雌鱼是否有因为怀孕而产生的腹部隆起。雌鱼在怀孕期间,下腹会隆起。雌鱼怀孕后20至40天内,腹部会变得滚圆或者四方形状。
球状帆鳍鲈等鱼类因怀孕而产生的隆起较其他鱼类位置更靠前,就在鱼鳃下方。
肥胖的雄鱼在前胸处也可能产生凸起。如果你停止投放鱼食若干日,雄性的凸起可能会变小,但雌鱼因怀孕而产生的凸起则不会发生变化。

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5
查看鱼是否产生了红色或者黑色斑点。怀孕的雌鱼身上会出现妊娠斑点,多集中于腹部或肛门处。这些斑点一般是黑色或者亮红色,随着孕期增长会愈发明显。
很多鱼本身就有色斑,但是这些斑点会随着进入孕期而发生颜色的深浅变化。

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6
决定如何处理幼鱼。饲育幼鱼或者鱼苗是件很困难的事情。饲育幼鱼需要一只独立的鱼缸,以防幼鱼受到成年鱼或者过滤器的伤害。如果你没做好准备去饲育幼鱼,请联系有经验的鱼类爱好者或者水族商店,请他们协助你或者收养幼鱼。如果你想自行饲育幼鱼,请阅读下一章节,同时查询一下所饲育鱼类的种类。

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方法 2

方法 2 的 3:留意宠物鱼筑巢及产卵

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1
以下方法适用于卵生鱼类。很多观赏鱼都属于卵生鱼类,包括七彩神仙鱼,搏鱼和大部分的丝足鱼。卵生鱼通常会在水面,缸底或者缸壁筑巢,然后将卵产于其中。同缸的雄鱼会通过体外受精或者交配的方式让鱼卵受精。之后鱼卵会孵化为小鱼。
在网上查询你所饲育的宠物鱼的资料,确定是胎生还是卵生。
有些种类的雌鱼可以将精子贮藏数月,以备日后鱼卵受精所用。因此即便整个鱼缸都是雌鱼,宠物鱼也有怀孕的可能。

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注意鱼类筑巢的迹象。有些卵生鱼会通过筑巢来确保鱼卵的安全。巢的外观可能是小坑或者砂砾堆,有时非常不起眼。有些丝足鱼能用气泡堆砌精美的巢穴,通常由雄鱼在水面筑造而成。

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3
观察鱼卵。许多卵生鱼会因为怀孕而产生腹部隆起,但这种外观变化并不显著,持续时间也较短。鱼卵状如气泡,会散布在水中,也有些会附在堆砌的巢穴上,或粘在缸底或缸壁。
很多卵生鱼类会通过交配让鱼卵受精,其中包括大部分的丝足鱼。交配时雌鱼和雄鱼精力充沛,互相追逐可达数小时之久,之后受精的鱼卵便会从雌鱼体内排出。

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4
为鱼卵的孵化做准备。饲育幼鱼或鱼苗绝非易事,不过在鱼卵孵化前,你还是有时间做好准备的。如果有兴趣自行饲育幼鱼,可联系水族商店,因为不同鱼类的饲育方式也不尽相同。如果鱼卵在你未察觉的情况下孵化成功,请阅读下一章节学习幼鱼的饲育知识,切记下文的方法无法适用于所有鱼类。

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方法 3

方法 3 的 3:饲育幼鱼

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1
对饲养的宠物鱼多做研究。下文提到的方法既包含饲育幼鱼的基础知识,也有如何饲育幼鱼的速成方法。不过饲育幼鱼或鱼苗绝非易事,知识储备越丰富,应对各种情况就越得心应手。
不同鱼类的饲养繁育方法可以参见饲养盘丽鱼,丝足鲈鱼和搏鱼(斗鱼)的相关文章。
向水族商店的工作人员或网上的水族爱好者咨询相关讯息。术业专攻,咨询他们要比咨询普通宠物店能获得更多讯息。

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2
将过滤器替换为海绵过滤器。鱼缸里的过滤器如果会吸水或者产生水流,请用海绵过滤器将其替换。吸入式的过滤器可能会让幼鱼筋疲力尽,甚至将其吸入过滤器造成死亡。

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3
将成年鱼和幼鱼分开。许多鱼类饲育者会专门准备一只新的鱼缸,将鱼卵或者小鱼单独放进去。对于饲育经验不足的饲主,迅速为幼鱼创造合适的生存环境可能较为困难。你可以用水族商店出售的塑料网将鱼缸里的鱼分开。有些成年鱼会照顾幼鱼,有些则会攻击幼鱼。请上网查询资料,确定你所饲育的鱼类是否会攻击幼鱼,如果查不到资料,可通过成年鱼的活动来做出判断:
如果成年鱼在产卵后会保护巢和幼鱼,请用鱼网将其它鱼和幼鱼分开,将幼鱼和雌雄鱼归于一处。
如果是胎生鱼,或者是将鱼卵随意产在水中的卵生鱼,请将成年鱼和幼鱼分隔开来,防止小鱼遭到攻击。

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4
给幼鱼喂专用饲料。你可以从水族商店买幼鱼专用饲料,但是要进行挑选。纤毛虫,液态鱼食或轮虫都是不错的选择。随着幼鱼的成长,根据种类不同,你可能需要额外增加鱼食。根据鱼的种类不同,向水族店咨询信息。
如果联系不到水族店,也可以用纱布将煮熟的蛋黄挤碎作饲料。

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为幼鱼的成长做好准备。如果想要继续饲养长大的宠物鱼,请准备一只新缸以便饲育。否则请联系当地的水族店或水族爱好者,在幼鱼长到一定阶段后可以出售或赠送。

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