如何判断一个人是否有脑震荡

部分 1

部分 1 的 3:检查立刻出现的症状

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1
确认伤者是否失去意识。不是每个人在脑震荡后都会失去意识,只有部分人会这样。这是脑震荡最明显的症状。如果伤者头部遭到重击后昏过去,那就得立刻寻求紧急医疗救助。[3]
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Mayo Clinic

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留意伤者是否说话含糊不清。问对方一些基本的问题,比如“你叫什么名字”、“你知道自己在哪里吗”等。如果他们回答问题时反应很慢、口齿不清、牛头不对马嘴或者难以明白,可能就是脑震荡了。[4]
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注意伤者是否思维混乱,或者不记得发生了什么。眼神呆滞、一脸迷茫或不知道自己身在何处,都有可能是大脑受创的迹象。如果他们看起来很茫然,不记得发生什么事,好像失忆了,那很可能就是脑震荡。[5]
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Mayo Clinic

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留意对方是否感到恶心或呕吐。要是对方在头部受到撞击,或发生其它类型的事故后出现呕吐,尤其是反复呕吐,通常就意味着出现了脑震荡。如果没有呕吐的现象,那就问一问他们是否觉得恶心或胃部不适,这些通常也是脑震荡的迹象。[6]
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注意平衡感或协调能力是否变差。脑震荡通常会影响动作技能,比如无法走直线或接球。如果对方有这方面的问题,或者反应变慢,可能是脑震荡了。[7]
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询问伤者是否感觉头痛、视力模糊或头晕。头痛持续超过数分钟是脑震荡的常见迹象。视力模糊、“看见星星”、感觉头晕或头昏脑涨,也有可能是脑震荡的迹象。[8]
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可靠来源

Mayo Clinic

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在接下来的3到4小时里,要密切留意对方的情况。如果你怀疑某个人脑震荡,接下来几个小时都要密切关注他的状况。不要把他们单独留下,以免需要紧急治疗的时候,身边没有人帮忙。如果可以,在事故发生后安排某人至少陪着他们几个小时,密切留意他们的行为。[9]
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部分 2

部分 2 的 3:密切留意后续症状

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1
注意接下来几天或几周内出现的症状。有的脑震荡症状会立刻出现,有的则要在几天甚至几周后才会出现。即使对方在事故发生后看起来很好,但也可能在之后出现脑震荡的迹象。[10]
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Mayo Clinic

前往来源

伤者可能会口齿不清、思维混乱、恶心或呕吐、平衡感或协调能力变差、头晕、视力模糊或头痛。
有这些症状未必是脑震荡,也有可能是其它健康问题,所以一定要让医生检查。

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留意接下来几个月是否有情绪和行为变化。突如其来的行为或情绪变化是脑震荡的常见迹象。如果对方莫名不耐烦、暴躁易怒、生气、伤心或情绪化,那就可能是脑震荡了。要是对方变得暴戾,用不当的行为发泄情绪,对自己喜欢的东西或活动失去兴趣,也有可能是脑震荡。[11]
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确认他们是否对光或声音敏感。脑震荡患者通常对强光和嘈杂的噪声更敏感。如果强光和噪音会让他们疼痛或畏缩,或者耳朵嗡嗡响,那可能就是脑震荡了。[12]
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可靠来源

Mayo Clinic

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留意饮食或睡眠习惯是否有变。注意任何反常的行为习惯。如果对方食欲不振或比平时吃得更多,可能是脑震荡的迹象。无法入睡或睡太多同样也有可能是脑震荡的症状。[13]
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Mayo Clinic

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观察伤者是否有记忆或注意力方面的问题。即使对方在发生事故后看起来很清醒,之后也可能会有问题。要是他们目光茫然,无法集中注意力,不记得事故发生之前或之后的事情,很可能是脑震荡了。[14]
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可靠来源

Mayo Clinic

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注意小孩是否过度哭泣。如果你怀疑小孩脑震荡,那就多注意他们是否比平时哭得更多。小孩和成人的脑震荡症状大部分是一样的,但是小孩可能因为疼痛、觉得不对劲或不懂得表达而过度哭泣。[15]
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可靠来源

Mayo Clinic

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部分 3

部分 3 的 3:就医治疗

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如果癫痫发作、呼吸困难或耳朵有液体渗出,一定要寻求紧急治疗。要是伤者在失去意识后没有反应或没有醒过来,头痛恶化,反复呕吐,耳朵和鼻子流出液体或血液,癫痫发作,呼吸困难或口齿不清,一定要立刻带他们到急诊室。这些症状可能意味着大脑受到非常严重的损伤。[16]
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疑似脑震荡的人一定要在一两天内接受医生检查。即使不需要紧急治疗,所有头部损伤都必须让执业医生检查。如果你怀疑某个人脑震荡,在事故发生的两天内带他们去看医生。[17]
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Mayo Clinic

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要是伤者症状恶化,一定要立刻就医治疗。一般来说,脑震荡的症状会慢慢减轻。如果情况正好相反,伤者疼痛加剧,比如头越来越痛,和(或)疲劳加重,要立刻就医治疗。这些迹象可能意味患者伤势比较严重。[18]
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遵循医生制定的治疗方案。医生通常会让脑震荡患者卧床休息。身体和精神都要休息。也就是说除了要避开剧烈的体力活动,比如运动等;也不能做剧烈的脑力活动,像是玩电子游戏或填字游戏。一定要按医生指示充分休息,并遵循医生制定的其它治疗方案。[19]
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在获得医生许可之前,停止做一切运动和体力活动。如果伤者是在参加体育活动、做运动或其它体力活动的时候脑震荡,不要让他们继续参与比赛或活动。在接受医生检查之前,不得恢复活动,特别是可能会再次发生碰撞的身体接触性运动。[20]
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