如何填补木头的裂缝

方法 1

方法 1 的 3:使用木器腻子或填充棒

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1
购买和木头颜色相同的填充剂。选购笔形的木用填充棒或木器腻子。你可以在装修用品商店或网上买到这类产品,它们有各种颜色。选一种颜色和待修补木头最为相近的产品。
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如果你找不到完全一致的颜色,可以买几种不同的,把它们混合到一起,调出新的颜色。
如果你想事后给木头上色,确保标签上注明了产品是可以着色的。它会染上染料的颜色,和木头浑然一体。
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2
用手指把填充物按入孔隙。如果你用的是填充棒,只需要把它按在裂缝上来回摩擦就行了。然后在需要时,你可以用手指涂抹更多填充物上去。使用腻子时,刮铲和凿子可以更加方便地把材料填到裂缝里。

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3
用填充物填充裂缝,直到完全填满。继续涂抹填充物,直到它从裂缝开口溢出。稍后抹平和打磨填充物时,溢出会令裂缝的填充效果更好。[2]
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4
用刮铲抹平填充物。在木头上的填充物变干之前,尽量把它抹平。如果没有刮铲,你可以用干净的抹布或手指擦拭或摩擦裂缝。确保使用干净的抹布,以免混入异物。[3]
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5
等待8小时,让木用填充剂变干。填充材料所需的干燥时间取决于产品特性,所以请查看标签,了解它建议的等待时间。安全起见,可以把木头放8小时或一整晚,确保填充剂干透。[4]
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打磨掉多余的填充剂。用手刨或细砂纸把裂缝区域打磨光滑。砂纸号数应该在120到220之间。打磨掉填充剂,让木头表面尽可能平整。完成打磨后,裂缝位置应该没有明显的色差,不再那么显眼。[5]
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方法 2

方法 2 的 3:用木工胶和木屑填充裂缝

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找到类型和颜色与木头一致的木屑。木屑的作用是遮盖白色的木工胶,让裂缝的颜色与周围一致,所以它必须尽可能与待修补的木头接近。为了尽量减少修补痕迹,可以从木头上锯点或磨点木屑下来。
如果无法从木头上获取木屑,可以去装修用品商店买一袋。

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2
把木工胶挤进裂缝。去商店买一瓶木工胶。用喷嘴抵住裂缝,挤压容器,直到木工胶填满需要修复的整条缝隙。如果裂缝较小,你也可以使用注射器,以确保木工胶进入裂缝深处。[6]
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3
用木屑遮盖木工胶。在木工胶上铺一层木屑,把它彻底盖住。用手指按压裂缝,确保木屑被胶水粘牢。粘好木屑后,它会遮住木工胶,与木头的其余部分融为一体。[7]
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4
等到第二天,让木工胶干透。让木工胶固化,直到第二天。等它干透后,裂缝应该就不明显了。如果裂缝仍然很明显,就重新涂抹木工胶和木屑,或者换成另一种填充剂。[8]
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5
把裂缝打磨平整。用一张号数在120到220之间的细砂纸打磨裂缝。小心摩擦修补部位,直到填充剂平整,不再明显。[9]
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方法 3

方法 3 的 3:用环氧树脂修补裂缝

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1
戴上呼吸防护口罩,在通风良好的区域作业。不要吸入环氧树脂,所以开工前戴上口罩,以确保安全。在室外作业是最安全的选择,不要让宠物和家人靠近作业区域。[10]
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2
如果裂缝贯穿整块木头,就用遮盖胶带把它封住。在裂缝贯穿整块木头的情况下,用胶带封住一侧。它能防止液态的环氧树脂从底部流出,让它有足够的时间固化。[11]
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修补较大裂缝时,环氧树脂的效果比其他填充剂更好。

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把等量的环氧树脂组合物挤入碗中。环氧树脂包含树脂和硬化剂两种组合物,它们被包在一起。评估填充裂缝需要多少树脂和硬化剂。把它们加到碗里,但是先不要搅拌。[12]
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两种成分混合后,环氧树脂会立即开始硬化。你有大约5分钟时间把它填入裂缝,所以先混合一小块。

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往环氧树脂中加入一滴木色染料。在装修用品商店,你通常可以买到各种环氧树脂着色染料、粉末颜料或金属粉。选一种颜色和自己家具相同的产品,然后滴一滴染料或撒一点粉末,将环氧树脂染上颜色。[13]
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你甚至可以混入一勺咖啡渣,让环氧树脂变黑。[14]
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立即搅拌环氧树脂。握住勺子或搅拌棒,快速搅拌,让环氧树脂组合物以及添加的任何着色剂混合到一起。几秒种后,它会变成一种油漆状的物质,可以涂到裂缝上。[15]
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把混合物舀到裂缝里。用搅拌勺或搅拌棒把环氧树脂填入裂缝,让它尽量深入。大多数环氧树脂会向下流入底部。如果环氧树脂少了,无法填满整个裂缝,那就再多调一点。
倒环氧树脂的时候用针刺破冒出的气泡。

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如果要填的裂缝比较大,那就多调一点环氧树脂。环氧树脂会在几分钟内硬化,所以你马上就能知道自己是否需要再调一次。继续混合等量的树脂和硬化剂,直到整个裂缝都被填满。[16]
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等到第二天,让环氧树脂干透。2到4小时后,环氧树脂就会变干。用指甲压一下。如果出现凹痕,说明它还没有干透。天气较为凉爽时,为了确保环氧树脂不会脱落,最好等到第二天,让它干透。[17]
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用砂纸把环氧树脂磨平。先用刮铲刮掉多余的环氧树脂。然后用号数在120到220之间的细砂纸或锉刀把树脂修补的区域磨平,直到它和四周的木头表面齐平。[18]
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如果你有手刨,这一步会更加简单,它能防止你把木头磨掉。

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用毡头记号笔给白点上色。打磨后,你会看到硬化的环氧树脂露出一些没有染色的斑点。为它们补色时,可以用颜色和所用染料相似的记号笔。完成后,裂缝甚至不会留下任何痕迹,你可以继续做自己剩余的木工活。

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