如何用夹板治疗锤状指

部分 1

部分 1 的 2:急救

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1
诊断损伤。首先要确认损伤是否为锤状指。如果是锤状指,手指末端关节(最靠近指甲的关节)会出现疼痛。指节会弯曲下垂,不能正常移动,手指指节无法完全伸直。
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2
敷冰块。冰块可以缓解关节肿胀和疼痛,但不能用冰块直接在皮肤上擦拭。要用毛巾包住冰块,或用一袋冰冻蔬菜敷在指节上。[2]
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3
服药控制疼痛。如果疼痛十分剧烈,你可以吃一些常备药来缓解疼痛,像是艾德维尔、摩特灵、萘普生钠、萘普生和泰诺。愈合过程中还是一直干到疼痛,也可以服用这些药。[3]
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这些药(除了泰诺)均为抗炎药,不但能止疼,还可以消肿。

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4
用临时夹板固定手指。你应该找医生购买专用夹板,但在此之前,可以自制一个夹板,让手指伸直。找一个棒冰棍,置于手指下方。用胶带包裹手指和棒冰棍,这样胶带能将手指牢牢地固定在棍子上,给手指提供衬垫保护。[4]
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这么做的主要目的是让手指保持伸直的状态。
如果手指一直弯曲,会妨碍愈合过程。任何笔直、坚固的物品,只要能将手指固定,都可以当作夹板。胶带也要固定牢固,不能让手指弯曲移动,但也不要太紧,以免阻碍血液循环,导致手指发麻或失去血色。

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部分 2

部分 2 的 2:专业医师治疗

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1
立即找医生治疗。越早看医生,采用专用夹板,损伤就越容易恢复。如果受伤当天没有治疗,你应该在之后几天内尽快找医生治疗。医生会通过X射线确认肌腱是否断裂,是否有骨折。医生还会提供治疗。常见的治疗方法是采用夹板。[5]
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在极少数情况下,夹板会严重妨碍工作。比如说,如果你是一名外科医生,可以在手指内置入钢针,让它保持伸直状态。

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2
选择夹板。有多种类型的夹板可供选择。每种都会一定程度地影响手指的使用。和医生沟通你的习惯和职业,让医生更好地判断哪种夹板最合适。可选择的类型有烟囱式夹板、铝合金夹板和椭圆形8手指夹板。最后一种在手指上的覆盖面积最少,妨碍最小。

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3
正确戴夹板。夹板要戴牢固,让手指完全伸直。如果手指弯曲,指节会出现压疮。胶带也不要太紧,防止指尖不舒适或发紫。

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4
你应该一直带着夹板,直到医生要求摘下。虽然夹板带起来不舒服,但是你得时时保持手指伸直的状态。如果手指弯曲,正在愈合的肌腱会断裂。万一出现这样的情况,整个愈合过程就得从头开始。[6]
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洗澡时,你会特别想要把夹板摘下来。椭圆形8夹板的一大优势就是可以进水。如果用其他类型的夹板,得用塑料袋或手套来防水。[7]
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复诊。约六至八周后,医生会改变治疗方式。如果进展良好,医生会开始让你减少使用夹板的时间,可能会要求你仅在晚间戴夹板睡觉。[8]
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手术治疗。锤状指极少需要手术治疗。但是,如果X射线显示你有骨折,可能就需要做手术。否则,医生一般不建议手术。手术的效果通常不好,有时还不如采用夹板进行保守治疗。[9]
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术后十天左右,需要再找医生拆线,并检查愈合情况。

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