如何预防冻伤

部分 1

部分 1 的 3:穿合适的衣服

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外出前先查看天气。先看天气预报,然后才决定你今天要穿怎样的衣服。防止冻伤其实就是尽可能做好充分准备。不管是远足还是排队购买火车票,如果你一整天都会待在户外,就有可能会冻伤。
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确保自己有充足的御寒衣服来应对气温下降。冬天的天气非常难测。为中午的高温做好准备之余,也必须提前为夜晚的低温打算。万一你迟回家,也有充足的衣服御寒。

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做好准备面对预料之外的暴风雪或狂风。暴露在湿雪和冷风中将增加被冻伤的几率。

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穿多层衣服。经常待在户外的人已经发展出一套应付冬天天气的穿衣方法。无论你的冬装有多保暖,也不会比多穿一层衣服有效。好的冬天装束最好包括以下基本御寒衣物:

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穿一件紧贴皮肤的吸湿排汗衣服。这种人造面料能避免皮肤长时间处于潮湿状态。

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穿一件保暖的衣服遮盖吸湿排汗的衣服。最好是羊毛制成的衣服。不要穿棉质衣服,因为它无法很快变干,不能很好地保暖。

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最外一层穿一件适合冬天的衣服。你可以在外穿一件冬大衣、防雨外套或两件一起穿,从根本上保护自己。

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检查衣服是否有空隙。确保衣服没有空隙,寒冷空气无法从外面进入,袭击你的皮肤。裤子和衬衫相接处、手腕、脚踝和脖子都很容易冻伤。即使这些并非最常见的冻伤部位,你也应该采取预防措施,以防万一。

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把打底衫严严实实地塞进裤子。

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10
用袜子包着裤脚。

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用连指手套盖着衣服袖子。

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特别注意保护头部、双手和双脚。这些都是最常被冻伤的部位。保暖衣服无法保护这些身体外表面。你必须特别给这些部位穿戴合适的衣物,让它们尽量保持暖和。

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穿带有帽耳的保暖帽子。

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在非常冷的气温下保护眼睛和鼻子。你可以戴滑雪面罩。

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戴连指手套,它们比分指手套更保暖。

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穿合适的鞋子和袜子。如果你预料到双脚会被弄湿,可以穿防水靴子。

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部分 2

部分 2 的 3:了解何时必须躲入屋内

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1
别让孩子在外面待太久,每过一小时都要把孩子带进屋内,让他的身体暖和起来。小孩更容易被冻伤,因为他们不像成人那样了解冻伤的警告信号。小孩也可能遗失连指手套,却没有即刻注意到这点,导致手指冻得发麻。定时带小孩回到屋内取暖(尤其是在非常寒冷的气温下),时刻保持他们的安全。

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如果你遇到严重的暴风雨或极其寒冷的天气,请寻找躲避的地方。在低温、狂风或下大雨时,身体可能很快就被冻伤。如果天气状况出现变化,你必须尽快寻找躲避的地方。

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如果衣服被雪、雨或汗水弄湿了,请立刻更换衣服或进入屋内。让潮湿的衣服紧贴皮肤会增加冻伤的风险,尤其是袜子、分指手套或连指手套。多带些衣服,或是在衣服被弄湿后进入屋内晾干它们。

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每半小时检查皮肤是否被冻伤。如果你处于非常寒冷的气温下,这一点尤其重要。
X
研究来源

检查你的皮肤,轻压皮肤看看它是否变得僵硬,动一动手指和脚趾。冻伤的前兆包括:[2]
X
可靠来源

Princeton University

前往来源

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亚冻伤:这是最早的阶段。皮肤被按压后通常会感到疼痛及发红。

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表面冻伤:第二阶段的冻伤特征为皮肤发麻,呈灰黄色或白色,但仍感觉柔软。

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深层冻伤:这个阶段的冻伤非常危险,需要立刻就医。看看皮肤是否发麻,呈白色或蜡样灰黄色,而且异常僵硬。患者也可能出现头晕目眩、意识模糊和发烧症状。

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部分 3

部分 3 的 3:处理冻伤

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1
立刻到一个温暖的地方。如果你出现冻伤前兆,马上进入屋内取暖。脱下湿衣服,换上干的衣服或是裹着保暖的毯子取暖。喝一杯暖和的饮料,例如茶、热巧克力或温水,尽快提高体温。

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身体变暖后,不要再出去。在这时候外出,冻伤部位很容易受到进一步损伤。别为了回去滑雪或远足而让自己承受冻伤的风险。

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如果你找不到暖和的地方,或离最近的有暖气建筑物太远,可以躲在不受风吹的地方,然后呼喊或打电话求救。

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将冻伤部位浸泡在温水中。在一个碗或锅里装温水,然后把冻伤部位完全浸入水里。别用热水,以免皮肤太快变热,损伤皮肤组织。浸泡冻伤部位30到40分钟。

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先让没有冻伤的人测试水温,确保是温水,而非热水。被冻伤者可能无法准确地感应温度。

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约30或40分钟后,冻伤部位应该会恢复所有知觉,并恢复正常肤色。当身体组织开始暖和时,你通常会感到剧烈疼痛。

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7
别用其它方法温暖冻伤部位。粗暴地对待身体组织可能加重损伤。你只能用温水作为取暖方法,让身体恢复正常体温。请勿做以下的事情:

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8
别用手或毛巾揉搓皮肤。

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9
别用火烤冻伤部位,因为发麻的皮肤很容易被烧伤。

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10
寻求医疗协助或让医生评估损伤状况。亚冻伤可以在家治疗,无需进一步的医疗协助,但超过这个范围的冻伤可能会造成长期伤害。如果你出现以下症状,请立刻就医:[3]
X
可靠来源

Mayo Clinic

前往来源

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11起水泡

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12失去感觉

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13皮肤苍白或变色

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14冻伤部位流脓

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15发烧、意识模糊、头晕目眩

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