如何照顾幼猫

方法 1

方法 1 的 4:帮助母猫分娩并照顾新生幼猫(0至4周)

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1
给猫妈妈分娩提供一个安静的环境。猫妈妈会选择它认为安全的地点来分娩。务必提供一个大纸箱,将箱子一侧竖立放好,并在里面铺上干燥暖和的被褥。要是猫妈妈另有打算,也别沮丧。它会本能地寻找一个安静而又隐蔽的地方,如床底下、沙发后面或者厨房柜子里。
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研究来源

Reproduction in the Dog and Cat. Christianseen. Publisher: Bailliere Tindall.

想要更好地了解如何帮助猫咪分娩,请看本文。WH.performance.mark(‘step1_rendered’);

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2
分娩当时及分娩后的前两天,不要打搅猫咪母子。产后48小时是母猫与幼猫之间建立亲密关系的关键时期,所以不要随便打搅。如果母猫在床底下生下了小猫咪,就让它在那儿。随便搬动新生幼猫会让母猫焦虑不安,糟糕的话,母猫甚至会抛弃自己的孩子。母猫与幼猫建立了亲密关系后,约在第四、五天时,如有需要,可以搬动幼猫。[2]
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研究来源

Reproduction in the Dog and Cat. Christianseen. Publisher: Bailliere Tindall.

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3
把食物、水和猫砂放在房间里。幼猫刚出生的两周内,母猫不会离开幼猫很长时间。把食物和水始终放在母猫窝边能够得着的地方,如果可以,也把猫砂盆放在房间里,这样母猫就可以随时关注幼猫的一举一动。
如果食物放在另一个房间,有的母猫宁愿挨饿也不愿离开自己的猫宝宝。[3]
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研究来源

Reproduction in the Dog and Cat. Christianseen. Publisher: Bailliere Tindall.

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4
给母猫多喂点食物。母猫需要额外的卡路里来给幼猫提供奶水。[4]
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研究来源

Reproduction in the Dog and Cat. Christianseen. Publisher: Bailliere Tindall.

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5
让母猫自己清理卫生。母猫会本能地让自己的窝保持干净。新生幼猫无法自己排大小便,因此在喂奶前后,母猫必须舔幼猫的屁股刺激排便。这样就能保持猫窝的卫生。尽量不要动猫窝。
如果被褥脏了,等母猫出去方便的时候把脏被褥拿走,换成干净的。[5]
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研究来源

Reproduction in the Dog and Cat. Christianseen. Publisher: Bailliere Tindall.

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6
检查是否所有的幼猫都在吃奶。只要有母猫在,生完最后一只小猫后,母猫就会给所有的小猫喂奶。新生幼猫大部分时间都在睡觉,每隔两、三个小时醒一次吃奶。如果幼猫不吃奶,或者被其他猫咪从母亲身边推开,就按第二部分的方法用奶瓶给它喂奶。

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7
考虑给母猫节育。兽医及动物保护组织主张哺乳后给母猫节育(切除子宫)。这样可以避免幼猫惨遭遗弃,而且节育对猫咪的身体健康也有好处。[6]
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可靠来源

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

前往来源

要注意,猫分娩后的三、四天内就能再次受孕,因此要把它关在室内,以避免这种风险。

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8
考虑给幼猫驱虫。如果需要,两周大时就可以给猫咪驱虫。向兽医咨询驱虫用药及用药量。[7]
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研究来源

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方法 2

方法 2 的 4:照顾孤儿幼猫(0至4周)

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1
给幼猫喂代乳粉。兽医诊所、各大宠物店或网上都有售代乳粉(如Cimicat)。另一种比较好的代乳粉是KMR(赐美乐),类似于猫的婴儿奶配方,成分和母乳一致。代乳粉包装上会说明每餐的食用量。
不要给幼猫喂牛奶,因为乳糖会导致猫咪胃部不适。如果没有代乳粉,身边又有一只嗷嗷待哺的小猫咪,就先用滴管或者注射器给它喝点凉开水,然后赶紧去兽医诊所或宠物店。喝了水小猫咪就不会出现脱水,也不会出现胃部不适。[8]
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研究来源

Reproduction in the Dog and Cat. Christianseen. Publisher: Bailliere Tindall.

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2
使用配有特制奶嘴的幼猫专用奶瓶。兽医诊所、各大宠物店和网上均有售。紧急情况下,可以用滴管或小型注射器将奶滴入猫咪嘴里。[9]
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研究来源

Reproduction in the Dog and Cat. Christianseen. Publisher: Bailliere Tindall.

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3
喂完奶后轻拍小猫让它打嗝。就像让婴儿打嗝一样,将幼猫直立抱起依在你肩膀上或将一只手放在它腹部下,然后轻拍并抚摸它的背部。[10]
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研究来源

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4
刺激猫咪排泄。每次喂奶前后,用温水浸湿的纸巾或纱布垫轻轻擦拭猫咪的屁股。这样可以刺激幼猫排泄,否则幼猫无法自行排泄。[11]
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研究来源

Reproduction in the Dog and Cat. Christianseen. Publisher: Bailliere Tindall.

每次喂奶后,把幼猫抱到猫砂盆上方用毛巾在生殖器和肛门处擦拭,直至排出大小便(完全排空)。
朝同一个方向擦拭,来回擦拭刺激较大。
不建议使用棉球或棉垫,因为容易散落。[12]
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研究来源

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检查排泄物是否健康。小便应为淡黄色,无味;大便应为棕黄色,成段。深色刺鼻的尿液是脱水的表现;绿色大便是过度喂养的表现;白色大便可能是因为吸收不良,情况比较严重。如有问题,请联系兽医。
如果幼猫持续12小时未排尿,应立即带幼猫去看兽医。
大部分幼猫一天排便一次,但也有个体差异。如连续两天未排便,就要去看兽医。[13]
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研究来源

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按时给幼猫喂奶。出生后两周内,全天每隔两到三小时喂一次。幼猫饥饿时会扭动身子大声叫唤着好像在寻找奶头。吃饱的猫咪一边吸着奶一边就睡着了,肚子吃得圆滚滚的。两周后,喂奶时间可以延长到每隔三至四小时喂一次,夜间隔六个小时。[14]
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研究来源

Reproduction in the Dog and Cat. Christianseen. Publisher: Bailliere Tindall.

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用有罩的加热垫给幼猫保温。新生幼猫(两周以内)无法自行调节体温,通常需要紧紧偎依母亲才能保持体温。可用幼犬或幼猫专用加热垫来模拟这一保温过程。不能让幼猫直接和垫子接触,否则可能会导致局部过热或烧伤。但加热垫通常都配有羊毛罩,一般不会有问题,除非是在取下罩子清洗时,这时候需要用毛巾先代替一下。
幼猫逐渐长大后(超过两周),如果觉得太热就会自己远离热源。[15]
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研究来源

Reproduction in the Dog and Cat. Christianseen. Publisher: Bailliere Tindall.

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如果幼猫身体发凉,一定不要喂奶。如果幼猫身体发凉,需要先让它慢慢地暖起来。如果幼猫的耳朵或脚上的肉垫摸上去冰冷,那就是身体发凉了。把手指伸进它嘴里,如果感觉冷,那么幼猫的体温就过低,可能出现生命危险。把它裹在羊毛毯里,抱起来紧贴在你身上,让它慢慢恢复体温,同时用手轻轻抚摩它一到两个小时。[16]
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研究来源

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9
多了解如何照顾孤儿猫咪。可以先从学习本文开始。向兽医咨询相关信息和建议。兽医还可以给猫咪接种常见病疫苗和驱虫。
可在两周大时给孤儿幼猫驱虫,并根据情况,在二至八周之间开始接种疫苗。孤儿幼猫的免疫力较低,因为它们不像其他猫咪一样可以从母乳中获得抗体。[17]
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研究来源

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方法 3

方法 3 的 4:幼猫的断奶和驯化(4至8周)

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1
留点多余的幼猫粮。如果有母猫,幼猫通常从四周左右开始断奶(从母乳到固体食物的转变)。此时,母猫厌倦了幼猫不停地吮吸奶头,会离开幼猫一段时间。因而,幼猫饿了就开始想办法找吃的,常常就会发现母猫的食物。
当幼猫开始尝试其他食物时,断奶的过程就正式开始了。[18]
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研究来源

Feline Behavior: a Guide for Veterinarians. Bonnie Beaver. Publisher: Saunders.

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提供水。幼猫在断奶(约四周大)之前不需要喝水。四周后,需要随时给它们备好一碗水。水脏了要及时更换(幼猫踩进碗里或在碗里排便就会把水弄脏)。[19]
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可靠来源

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

前往来源

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3
给人工喂养的猫咪提供幼猫粮。如果幼猫是用奶瓶喂大的,断奶过程也相似。可先将代乳倒入浅底盘中,用手指蘸进奶中示意小猫咪来舔。然后,将捣碎的幼猫湿粮和代乳混合成粥状给幼猫舔食。当幼猫学会了舔食,就可以将粥逐步加稠,直到幼猫喜欢上吃固体食物来获取营养。[20]
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研究来源

Reproduction in the Dog and Cat. Christianseen. Publisher: Bailliere Tindall.

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4
通过认识新事物来驯化幼猫。三至九周是驯化的关键时期。从三周大开始,每天尽量多抚摸并抱抱猫咪,让它们认识各种事物和声音,如真空吸尘器、电吹风、长着络腮胡子的男性、儿童等。凡是你能想到的,就都让它们认识认识。在六周大时,幼猫最易于接受新鲜事物,成年后的它也会理所当然地接受此时接触的一切事物,成为一只快乐、适应性强、友善的猫咪。[21]
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研究来源
Feline Behavior: a Guide for Veterinarians. Bonnie Beaver. Publisher: Saunders.

和幼猫玩玩具、球、线等物品,但不要玩一口能吞下的小物品。(注意在无人监护的情况下,幼猫可能会把绳子或线吃下肚,因此你不在场时不要给它玩,否则会有窒息危险。)
不要让幼猫把人的手或手指当玩具,否则成年后它还会继续把人的手或手指当玩具抓咬。

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5
不要使用结块的猫砂。精心挑选一块地方放猫砂盆,因为一旦幼猫形成习惯,就会一直在那里方便。如果是自己训练幼猫使用猫砂,只要在喂食后将小猫咪放在猫砂上就行了,或者一看到它蹲下身子,挠抓地板准备方便时,就把它放到猫砂上。猫砂盆每天至少要清理一次,否则猫咪就不肯再用。
猫砂盆的侧边要低一点,这样方便幼猫进出。[22]
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可靠来源

Animal Humane Society

前往来源

不要用结块的猫砂,幼猫可能会把砂块吃下肚子,伤害到消化器官。[23]
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可靠来源

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

前往来源

如果小猫似乎不想待在猫砂盆里,那就轻轻抓住它的爪子,模仿在猫砂中挖的动作。然后让小猫独自留在猫砂盆里,让它自己挖洞,然后用猫砂掩盖住粪便。

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6
注射疫苗前不要让猫咪出门。兽医同意后,就可以让猫咪去探索外面的世界。一定要注意盯紧它,直到能确定它知道怎么回家。
在猫咪有点饿时让它出去玩。然后喊它回家并示意它有东西吃。这会让猫咪记着,虽然外面的世界很精彩,家才是最终的归宿。

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7
不要随便赠送幼猫。如果要把幼猫卖掉或者送人,应该至少等到8周大,最好是十二周大。带幼猫去看兽医,并在送人之前开始给幼猫接种疫苗。跟踪好猫咪在新主人身边的情况,确保小猫咪一直在接种疫苗,并准备节育。和新主人交换联系方式,确保小猫咪得到妥善的照顾,或者防止新主人突然又不想要它了(至少你还能帮它再找个家)。

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方法 4

方法 4 的 4:照顾领养的幼猫(8周及8周以上)

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1
向育猫人或收容所索要一块沾有幼猫妈妈或兄弟姐妹气味的毯子。在搬入新家时,这些气味能抚慰幼猫。[24]
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研究来源

Feline Behavior: a Guide for Veterinarians. Bonnie Beaver. Publisher: Saunders.

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2
询问幼猫吃的什么猫粮。刚开始几天就给小猫咪吃这个猫粮,不至于一下子改变太大。[25]
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研究来源

Feline Behavior: a Guide for Veterinarians. Bonnie Beaver. Publisher: Saunders.

一旦幼猫在新家安定下来,就可以把猫粮换成你选的,但也要循序渐进,用少量新猫粮代替旧猫粮,在一周内逐渐增加新猫粮的量。[26]
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研究来源

如果幼猫吃的是干粮,就直接倒出一碗来给它吃。如果是湿粮,每隔六小时喂一小顿。[27]
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研究来源

Feline Behavior: a Guide for Veterinarians. Bonnie Beaver. Publisher: Saunders.

幼猫一岁大前一直喂幼猫粮,不要喂成年猫粮。[28]
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可靠来源

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

前往来源

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3
提供饮用水。四周以上的幼猫需要喝水,因此,要随时提供干净的水。
猫咪比较喜欢喝离它饭碗远一点的水。可在屋里各处摆上几碗水。

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4
让幼猫逐步地认识新家。一开始先让猫咪了解一间房间,第一天就一下子认识整个房子实在是应付不过来。准备一张床(最好四周围起来,上面有顶,这样猫咪在窝里才有安全感),把食物和水放在房间的一个角落,猫砂盆放到对面的角落。示意小猫咪各个物品的位置,然后让它休息。这一天对小猫咪来说可真是个不同寻常的日子,赶紧让它调整休息几个小时吧。[29]
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研究来源

Feline Behavior: a Guide for Veterinarians. Bonnie Beaver. Publisher: Saunders.

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5
尽量多关心小猫咪。多花点时间帮它打理、陪它玩耍、给它宠爱、和它交流。这有助于它日后成为一只善于交往、友善的猫咪。[30]
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研究来源

Feline Behavior: a Guide for Veterinarians. Bonnie Beaver. Publisher: Saunders.

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保证幼猫和财产的安全。将电线及电气设备置于幼猫无法接触的地方,防止它咬电线。如果猫咪好奇心特别强,可用儿童锁把低层柜子锁上。

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7
安排时间看兽医。九周大时,幼猫可以进行首次疫苗接种。这时候最适合兽医对它进行检查、驱虫和接种疫苗。幼猫接种的基础疫苗包括预防猫流感和传染性肠炎的蛋白。还可以选择接种预防猫白血病的疫苗。[31]
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研究来源

Feline Behavior: a Guide for Veterinarians. Bonnie Beaver. Publisher: Saunders.

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