如何种植西兰花

方法 1

方法 1 的 4:播种

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1
检测土壤pH。西兰花适宜在pH为6.0到7.0的土壤中生长。我们可以检测土壤pH并添加不同的营养物来调节土壤酸度。在种植过程中药定期检测土壤pH。
当地农业推广部门应该可以提供土壤检测工具及方法。
如果土壤pH值低于6.0,可以用酸堆肥或混合肥。
如果土壤pH值高于7.0,可以加硫磺颗粒混合。
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确保土壤肥沃且排水良好。如果土壤达不到以上条件,需要做些必要的准备。
如果土壤易涝,考虑修建一个花园播种筒,把土壤抬离地面。如有条件,可以用柏木做植物箱,因为柏木遇水不会腐烂。
为了使土壤更加肥沃,可以往土壤中添加四英寸成熟堆肥。如果土壤非常贫瘠,也可以添加含氮量高的有机肥。
有机肥料像苜蓿、棉籽粉、粪肥等都非常适宜种植西兰花。

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选择阳光充足的区域。虽然西兰花喜阳光,但是也需要有一定的树荫。

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4
直接在室外播种种子。如果是夏收的西兰花,在最后一次春霜前两到三周播种即可。如果是秋收,在第一次秋霜前85-100天直接在室外播种即可。
在室内轮流播种。如果要室内播种,在泥炭锅或其他小苗盆里种植,同时注意保证阳光充足。
室内播种与室外播种的步骤一致,只是分离植物幼苗时不需要稀释。

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挖几排1.25厘米深的坑,每排间距7.5-15厘米。每个坑中放几粒种子,然后用土填好。
如果在室外种植,用耙子轻轻耙土,让土覆盖在种子上,但是不用伤害种子。
如果在泥炭锅里种植,用手指轻轻把土覆盖在种子上。

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播种西兰花种子后用水把土壤浇透。但是要注意不要留水坑,西兰花需要排水良好。如果室内种植,用喷雾瓶弄湿土壤。

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调整土壤温度。室外种植时用成熟堆肥、树叶或树皮做 有机覆盖物 使土壤温度适宜。如果种植区域温度较低,可以用黑色塑料覆盖使土壤温度升高。可以在花园供应仓库买到塑料覆盖物,但是要用像油布这样不太硬的黑塑料。

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室外疏苗。当幼苗长到2.5厘米高的时候,为了给它们足够的空间生长就需要疏苗了。留下看起来比较健康的幼苗,间隔地疏苗保证幼苗间的空间足够生长。
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研究来源

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方法 2

方法 2 的 4:室内幼苗移植

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1
当幼苗长到10-15厘米高时需要移植幼苗。移植幼苗通常需要六周。幼苗的高度和发育比发芽时间重要得多。

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放置幼苗前要用水浇透。移植幼苗前要保证你大致完成一种适宜的整地方法,包括施肥。

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挖大约7.5厘米深的坑,把幼苗间隔0.4-0.6米栽种好。把土壤埋到植物最底下的叶子,但是不要覆盖它。小型品种可以间隔一英尺种植。

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4
调整土壤温度。室外种植时用成熟堆肥、树叶或树皮做有机覆盖物,使土壤温度适宜。交叉用黑色塑料覆盖使土壤温度升高。[2]
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研究来源

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移植后用水把土壤浇透。

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方法 3

方法 3 的 4:养护西兰花

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1
按时给西兰花浇水。每周浇水2.5-3.75厘米深,种植西兰花宜保持土壤潮湿。
如果要更专业滴地种植西兰花,可以用雨量计测土壤的潮湿度。
浇水时注意不要浇到西兰花花骨朵上,那样会使花骨朵发霉。
如果是在特别热或者特别干燥的条件下,要加量浇水。

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种植西兰花后大概三周施肥一次。西兰花长新叶时期施肥时要用像鱼乳化剂这样含氮量高的有机肥。快要结果实时需要每周施肥两次。

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不要挖坑转移土壤。西兰花的根很浅,翻土很有可能导致不小心损害根系,影响西兰花的生长。
如果西兰花周围有杂草,用覆盖物抑制杂草的生长,而不要把它们直接拔出来,否则有可能损害西兰花的根系。[3]
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研究来源

也可以用化学农药除去杂草,这样也不会损害西兰花的根系。

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收获西兰花。当花骨朵紧闭并呈暗绿色时就可以收获西兰花了。不要等到花变成浅绿色或黄色时才收获。当花冠长到茎部时用园艺剪刀将其剪下。
特殊品种西兰花的生长时期请参看“选择品种”部分。
不要折断花冠。用剪刀剪下有利用下一次的生长。
正确地剪下花冠后,在茎的一侧会长出新芽。

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方法 4

方法 4 的 4:选择品种

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如果想要足够的生长空间,那么可以选择大头的品种。大头的品种可以在秋天和春天之际长出很大的花冠,这些是最常见的品种。如果春天种植这些品种,通常需要50-70天成熟,如果秋天种植,通常65-90天成熟。大头品种有以下几种:
阿卡迪亚
博尔斯达
麦肯齐
营养芽
帕克曼

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暖冬时期可以种植抹芽品种。抹芽品种的特点是看起来比较浓密但花冠较小,在秋冬之际长势很好。如果春天种植,通常需要50-70天成熟,如果秋天种植,通常65-90天成熟。抹芽品种有以下几种:
花茎甘蓝
De Cicco
紫孔雀
紫抹芽

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如果土壤肥沃,可以种植罗马品种,罗马品种花冠成涡形或锥形,种在花园里非常美观,而且吃起来很脆。罗马品种最好在80℃左右条件下生长,并需要足够的水分。如果春天种植,通常需要75-90天成熟,如果秋天种植,通常85-100天收获。罗马品种有以下几种:
纳塔利诺
罗马意大利
维拉妮卡

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西兰花拉布在凉爽的天气中生长较快。这些品种可以收获花苞,所以比其他品种更香。如果春天种植,通常40-55天成熟,如果秋天种植,通常50-75天成熟。西兰花拉布品种有以下几种:
早秋拉皮尼
塔格罗萨
索伦托
赞伯尼[4]
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研究来源

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